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Geographic information systems and remote sensing are increasingly being used to analyze the geography of diseases, specifically the relationships between pathological factors (causative agents, vectors and hosts, people) and their geographical environments, in addition to locating and forecasting disease outbreaks. GIS applications are used to describe the sources and geographical distributions of disease agents, identified regions are mapped and analyzed for this information spatial and temporal patterns in risk exposure are modeled for efficient monitoring and forecasting of human and animal diseases.